For the Second Edition, the stallion, mare and foal sections have been thoroughly updated and revised to include the latest information on every subject. New topics include discussion of nutritional and behavioral factors in the broodmare and stallion, parentage testing, fetal sexing and the health and management of older foals, weanlings and yearlings. Additionally, this outstanding Second Edition features a new section on assisted reproductive techniques, including detailed information on artificial insemination, in-vitro fertilization, embryo transfer and technology.
Now in a much-anticipated new edition, this gold standard reference is the most comprehensive and authoritative text on equine reproduction. Serving theriogenologists, practitioners and breeders worldwide as a one-stop resource for the reproductive assessment and management of equine patients, Equine Reproduction provides detailed information on examinations techniques, breeding procedures, preganacy diagnosis and management, reproductive tract diseases and surgery, and foaling.
The stallion, mare and foal sections have been thoroughly revised and updated to include the latest information on every subject. Additionally, this outstanding second edition features a new section on assisted reproductive techniques, including detailed information on artificial insemination, in-vitro fertilization, embryo transfer and technology. Angus O. Wendy E. Dickson D. Convert currency. Add to Basket. Book Description Condition: New. Now in a much-anticipated two-volume new edition, thisgold-standard reference stands as the most comprehensive andauthoritative text on equine reproduction.
Seller Inventory More information about this seller Contact this seller. Servingtheriogenologists, pract. Shipping may be from multiple locations in the US or from the UK, depending on stock availability. Book Description Condition: New. US edition. Edema may occur physiologically due to lymphangiectasia and under influence of estrogen, i.
Cervical incompetence, abnormal vascular reaction to estrogens, a lymphatic pathology or an altered myoelectric activity are all possible non-inflammatory causes of hyperedema [ 17 , 59 ]. Thus, some edema patterns, such as excessive edema pre- or post-mating, or edema pattern that does not extend throughout the uterine wall, represent a pathological feature [ 17 ]. In particular, hyperedema has been considered the marker of uterine pathology when found during the estrus phase, independently from the positivity of a uterine cytology, but not during the early estrus [ 59 ].
Sometimes uterine fluid and edema are associated, probably due to the severity of drainage deficiency [ 59 ]. Furthermore, the appearance and dynamics of uterine cysts can be studied by US. Their effect on pregnancy rate seems to be a quantitative one, with only severely affected mares showing a reduction of fertility [ 68 ]. The use of more advanced US software, like Color-, Power-flow- and Pulse-Wave- Doppler applications, allows the evaluation of uterine vascularization. In humans, abnormal uterine blood flow and higher uterine artery impedance have been observed in women with recurrent pregnancy loss and different causes of infertility.
Poor blood flow of the gravid uterus has been correlated with advanced age and diffuse endometrial degenerative changes during early pregnancy in mares. Furthermore, disturbed uterine blood flow has been recently associated to other uterine pathologies such as uterine cysts and endometrial elastosis in subfertile mares [ 69 ]. After repeated mating in a season, mares may accumulate intrauterine fluid and display classic signs of inflammation on vaginoscopy. Endoscopic examination is the only way to establish the degree and the clinical significance of superficial intrauterine lesions and it is useful in several pathological conditions.
It can be used in the mare suspected of having subclinical endometritis due to focal lesions, intra-uterine adhesions and endometrial cups retention. It has proven to be useful in mares with a history of silent heats, which may display endometrial scarring or loss of endometrial folds [ 17 ]. The best time to perform endoscopy is during diestrus or early estrus, since it is easier to perform than in other phases. Before the examination, the uterine lumen is dilated with air or saline, but the best visibility is obtained with air.
It is important to remember to discard air out of the uterus after the procedure, with a catheter or a pump, because of possible irritation [ 17 ]. The diagnostic methods used to characterize endometritis are the uterine swab, the cytobrush, low volume flush and the endometrial biopsy [ 37 , 70 ]. As always, the clinician must interpret the data resulting from such techniques together with the clinical signs and bearing in mind how the results of each technique vary, depending on the pathogen [ 17 , 58 , 61 , 65 , 70 — 73 ].
All the procedures described thereafter assume that the mares are restrained in an examination stock, the tail is wrapped in an examination glove and suspended to the stock, and the whole perineal area is cleaned and disinfected to avoid contamination from the environment [ 16 , 58 , 71 ]. Each method has its pro and cons and many comparisons of the different techniques have been indeed performed [ 58 , 65 , 70 — 73 ].
Nevertheless, it should be remembered that all techniques can yield false-negative results if not conducted by expert clinician [ 37 ]. The uterine swab collection methods for bacteriologic and cytological analysis are the mainstay for the diagnosis of acute endometritis in the mare [ 74 ]. Through this technique, bacteria as well as inflammatory cells can be collected and examined by culturing it, or smearing the swab for cytology [ 70 , 74 ]. The double-guarded swab technique implicates the use of a double sheath, which allows minimizing vaginal contamination [ 16 , 70 — 71 ].
The tip of the double-guarded swab is kept covered and free from lubricant as it is introduced into the reproductive tract. Then, it is advanced through the cervix into the uterus and the inner sheath is pushed through the outer sheath. The examiner starts moving the swab to sample the endometrial surface using a pushing and rolling motion for up to 1 min, redirecting the swab into different areas of the uterus.
At the end of the sampling, the swab is pulled within the inner sheath, which is drawn back into the outer sheath, and the entire unit is then removed from the reproductive tract [ 16 , 70 — 71 ]. Another kind of guarded uterine instrument is the Knudsen catheter that can be autoclaved and used repeatedly. It consists of a metal tube of 87 cm in length and an inner spiral metal rod, and it has a small hole at the tip, to allow advancing a cotton swab. The tube includes a thickened area, the olive, which marks the point of the catheter that should be placed at the outer cervical orifice [ 74 ].
For the classic uterine swab, cytological smears are prepared by gently rolling the side of the swab, and by pushing the end on a sterile slide. The swab is sent to laboratory for microbiological tests, including the tip in a transport container [ 16 , 70 — 71 ]. On the other hand, the Knudsen catheter use provides the cotton swab for bacteriology, whereas the cytological sample is obtained by gently removing the material on the spiral rod [ 74 ].
Even if this technique, when properly adopted, is ideal for bacteriology, it leads to contrasting results for the cytological sampling. The use of this technique decreased strongly the number of mares improperly treated, but it may lead to cells deformation depending on the pressure applied during the smearing procedure [ 70 , 74 ]. Nevertheless, too little pressure during the rolling procedure may lead to clumping of cells [ 74 ].
Moistening and gentle rolling have been proven to relief distortion and fragmentation of the collected cells [ 70 ]. Furthermore, this method can yield false negative results. In fact, about half of the cases of infectious endometritis resulted negative, since the microorganisms were located in the most pendulous part of uterus that is not easily reached.
Conversely, false positive results can be associated with a contaminated sampling [ 55 ]. Furthermore, it collects a small superficial endometrial area, resulting in a small amount of total cells [ 70 ]. Otherwise, the degree of cellularity obtainable with the Knudsen catheter is influenced by the level of uterine secretion.
Indeed, the contact of the smooth surface of the metallic spiral with a dry endometrial surface provides poor cellularity, whereas in case of abundant secretions, samples obtained show an excellent cellularity due to the larger surface area, without cells distortion and with infrequent red blood cells [ 74 ]. Uterine brushes have been used for uterine cytology in humans, as well as in the equine species [ 60 ].
As described for the uterine swabs, a guarded technique is used, and the properly lubricated guarding tube is passed through the vagina to the base of a uterine horn or into the uterine body. Once in the area selected for the sampling, the outer tube is retracted far enough to expose the brush, and the cytobrush is rotated in a clockwise direction while in contact with the uterine wall [ 70 ]. The instrument is then retracted into the tube prior to removal from the uterus and then rolled on slides. Cytobrush has been considered superior to the other methods for cytological sampling, since it is easier, more consistent and produces samples with higher cellularity than other techniques, but a gentle preparation of smear is mandatory to reduce the cells distortion [ 70 , 74 ].
Cells fragmentation has been frequently observed in cytobrush smears probably due to the rigid fibers that damage the cells, as well as the common occurrence of red blood cells, which is an index of its invasiveness [ 70 ]. Proteinaceous material may contaminate the smears obtained with this technique, as well [ 70 ]. Nonetheless, it allows collecting cells both from the surface and from the depth of endometrium, up to glandular cells [ 70 ].
Such technique could preferentially be used to detect subclinical endometritis in field practice, for its inexpensiveness and safeness, particularly in comparison to endometrial biopsy [ 58 , 65 ]. The low volume flush is a method for uterine fluid collection [ 55 ]. The practitioner, properly gloved, advances a sterile insemination pipette, or a Bivona catheter, per vaginam into the uterus, through which the solution is injected.
Thus, the uterus is transrectally massaged to distribute the fluid evenly throughout the uterine lumen. Meanwhile, the pipette is moved back and forth and suction is applied to trap cells in the pipette. Finally, the effluent fluid is recovered in a sterile container. If the mare is in estrus, intravenous administration of 10 IU of oxytocin is suggested, to facilitate the release of fluid trapped in the edematous endometrial folds [ 16 , 55 , 70 , 72 ].
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The fluid is first evaluated macroscopically, holding the sample up to the light, for cloudiness and amount of mucus. The efflux is graded as clear, cloudy or clear with mucus strains. The recovered fluid is then centrifuged at rpm for 10 min, the supernatant is discarded and the pellet is aliquoted in two parts, one for microbiological culture and the other one is resuspended in 1 ml of PBS and drops of the suspension are spilled onto slides for cytological evaluation [ 16 , 55 , 70 , 72 ].
It has been showed to be twice as sensitive as swab culture [ 71 — 72 ]. Indeed, it allows quick identification of Gram-negative bacteria, e. Even if low volume flush requires a larger equipment to be performed than other procedures, it is considered rapid and accurate, and it may prove to be valuable for subclinical endometritis in the chronically infected mare. Nevertheless, this method may cause irritation of the endometrial mucosa and it may be more likely source of contamination from vaginal flora [ 60 , 72 ].
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Such contamination may yield false positive culture results; hence, other indices of endometritis should be added to improve the diagnostic power, such as a rise in pH or presence of debris [ 70 , 72 ]. Moreover, the samples may show a high number of blood red cells, probably due to the transrectal manipulation of uterus and the scraping effect of the tip of the catheter [ 70 ].
Recently, a double-guarded low volume flush technique has been developed, with improved sensibility and specificity in identifying endometritis in the mare [ 18 ]. Overall, this new method represents a valid alternative to the classic low volume flush and seems to decrease the risk of contamination during sampling procedure. Furthermore, the availability of a disposable lavage tube and of a closed fluid-tubing system is favorable to be used on field and allows the execution by only one person [ 18 ]. On the other hand, the technique showed a poorer ability to find PMNs compared to biopsy [ 18 ].
Its results about the changes within the endometrium are considered the most reliable. Endometrial biopsies are collected using a sterilized dedicated biopsy instrument, which is passed through the cervix within the uterine lumen. One arm is then inserted into the rectum to guide the biopsy forceps to the desired location, usually at the base of one uterine horn [ 58 , 71 ].
Once the forceps is closed, it is withdrawn and the sample is macroscopically evaluated for consistency and size, and immediately put in the selected media, depending on its further use. Bacteriological culture and cytology from endometrial biopsy were demonstrated to be superior to culture swabs, both for sensitivity and for positive predictive value [ 71 ].
Endometrial biopsy is safe, but it is not particularly practical [ 58 ]. A practical disadvantage is the time between sampling and histologic results, while bacteriological and cytological results are achievable in a short time [ 58 ]. Moreover, it is objectively more invasive than other techniques and needs specific equipment, requires further processing, such as shipping to skilled laboratories, time for examination and transmission of results.
Hence, it takes longer to have final diagnosis [ 65 , 71 ]. Endometrial cytology is an inestimable tool in assessing the endometrial inflammation, mainly through the detection of PMNs. Unfortunately, an agreement on the classification and interpretation of cytological results has not yet been reached and different interpretative cut-offs were proposed [ 16 , 70 , 74 — 75 ].
Indeed, some authors record the number of PMNs as a percentage of all cells seen on a slide and the cut-off value for positive to endometritis ranges from 0. The presence of uterine fluid during estrus has been found to be associated with an increased number of PMNs, and mares with intrauterine fluid on the second—third day of estrus were 1.
Recently, it has been suggested to evaluate endometrial cytology using the percentage of PMNs in relation to epithelial cells, rather than counting the number of PMNs per HPF, when using the cytobrush for sampling [ 73 ].
The amount of PMNs detectable is affected by various factors. Nonetheless, the time post-ovulation does not seem to display any effect on endometrial cytological parameters in non-bred mares. Moreover, a small resident amount of PMNs in the endometrium has been demonstrated from 24 to 96 hours after ovulation as well as during pro-estrus, in healthy mares [ 16 , 65 , 70 — 71 ]. The PMNs number increases in the uterine stratum compactum, but not in low volume flushes, after infusion of semen extenders, saline or seminal plasma, which are known to have an inflammatory effect [ 65 ].
Other important parameters useful to interpret the cytological sample are: the background content of the slides, i. Cytology is at the top among the diagnostic techniques, since it is a relatively inexpensive method to obtain results in a short time [ 73 ]. However, this method has a relatively high rate of false negative results and it does not provide information about the cause of the inflammation [ 58 , 70 ].
That is why it should always be conducted together with bacteriology, as the detection of PMNs together with potential pathogens is a stronger indicator of endometritis, and the number of mares identified as positive to endometritis is significantly higher than with either technique alone [ 58 , 65 , 70 — 71 ]. Furthermore, cytological samples supported by positive cultures show on average twice neutrophils than those associated with negative cultures, regardless of the virulence of the bacteria individuated [ 74 ]. Nonetheless, mares may have positive cytology with negative culture, and vice versa [ 55 , 65 ].
Various interpretations have been made to explain the absence of a correlation between the two techniques, in particular to justify negative cultures, such as that uterine swabs may miss focal infections, the presence of antimicrobial preparations in the uterus, deep-seated infection or non-infectious irritation [ 65 ]. A positive uterine culture before breeding is among the causes of infertility linked to endometritis [ 17 , 75 ].
If a mare does not spontaneously eliminate an infection in 2 to 4 days, she is considered either persistently infected or on her way of becoming persistently infected, as supported by the study on uterine clearance of bacteria in healthy mares [ 60 ]. Mares are classified as resistant when able to clear intrauterine fluid, inflammatory cells, and bacteria within 48 hours from breeding, otherwise they are considered susceptible [ 61 ]. In addition, the mares may change their susceptibility over subsequent breeding seasons, in a gradual manner. Some of them exhibit a decreased endometrial quality, while others show a floating resistance [ 61 ].
Most susceptible mares exhibit minimal signs of inflammation prior to the first breeding of the year, likely because of prolonged sexual rest [ 57 ]. Although uterine culture may yield false positive or false negative results, aerobic endometrial culture is still the most common method for diagnosing infectious endometritis [ 65 , 71 ].
Indeed, although bacteria may be recovered indicating an infectious endometritis, the underlying problem may be a persistent post-breeding endometritis, either not managed or treated suitably [ 57 ].writcovoulo.tk
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Bacteria and other microorganisms yeast or fungi may be found on cytological smears, free or phagocytized within neutrophils or macrophages, and should be scored based on their number per HPF [ 16 ]. Cultures may be positive for one or more bacterial species, but mixed cultures of more than three pathogens are usually considered as the result of contamination [ 58 , 65 , 71 ]. Various correlations have been demonstrated between endometrial bacteria and different US and endometrial cytological findings.
Mares with intrauterine fluid were 1. Intrauterine fluid was more commonly detected when hemolytic Streptococcus , Klebsiella species, Enterobacter cloacae or yeast were isolated, compared with E. However, intrauterine fluid, especially during estrus, was not always associated with bacterial endometritis [ 66 ]. Furthermore, pathogens associated with uterine fluid were more likely to coincide to neutrophils findings on cytology and vice versa [ 67 ].
Hence, the uterine fluid indicates an acute inflammation, but not necessarily a bacterial infection. This is confirmed by the presence of other causes of acute and neutrophilic intrauterine collection, such as pneumovagina, irritating effect of semen, urine reflux into the uterus and excessive production of endometrial mucus [ 67 ]. Moreover, not all microbes cause a neutrophilic response and the amount of cytological specimens graded as positive for inflammation varied among the microbial findings [ 75 ]. Presence of PMNs was strongly associated with S.
Most frequently isolated bacteria, the relative percentage, the sampling techniques adopted and the geographical area in which the study was conducted are summarized in Table 1. Furthermore, in some S. The prevalence of subclinical S. The activation of dormant bacteria, using bacterial growth mediums like bActivate , may improve significantly the sensitivity of traditional diagnostics [ 76 ]. On the other hand, E. The absence of correlation between E. In fact, the pathogen—host relationship, and consequently the uterine inflammatory response, of E. On the other hand, it appears to associate with moderate to heavy debris on cytological smears.
The interpretation of cultures positive for E. Another pathogen is P. Mares with bacteriological positivity but no cytological evidence of PMNs may be affected by contaminants [ 58 , 72 , 75 ]. However, their pregnancy rate resulted lower than those of the mares without any positivity to the tests. For example, Bacillus and Micrococcus are skin commensals that are not usually the cause of lowered pregnancy rates, but in barren and older mares with weakened physical barriers they may play a role in decreased fertility [ 75 ].
Even if S. Trans-cervical medical procedures, particularly when involving instillation of substances that may possibly favor bacterial growth, represent a risk of iatrogenic contamination of the uterus with bacteria from the micro-flora of the caudal reproductive tract [ 76 ].
In brief, the histological grading system for the endometrium ranges from I to III. Grade I is an essentially normal endometrium with minimal alterations. The endometrial lesions are further classified as inflammatory, i. The acute inflammatory lesions are characterized by at least one PMN per 5 HPF, whereas the chronic ones by lymphocytes are often accompanied by eosinophils [ 58 , 71 ]. Anyway, the number of PMNs is affected by the phase of the estrus cycle, with more neutrophils especially during estrus, regardless the cause of endometritis, breeding as well as bacterial-induced.
Degenerative processes are the sclerosis of uterine vessels, i. Even if the age combined with parity has been related with endometrial degeneration, and that increased parity is clearly positively correlated with increased age, old maiden mares may display much more marked changes than expected for their age [ 17 , 61 ].
Sports mares differ in regard to their endometrial pathology from equine populations of nearly exclusively non-sports mares, i. An irregular glandular differentiation may occur physiologically during the transitional cycles, but when these findings are seen during the breeding season, they represent a pathological alteration correlated with a permanent or temporary reduced fertility [ 78 ].
In mares susceptible to post-breeding endometritis, findings may differ depending on when the examination is performed [ 57 ]. Prior to the first breeding of the year, endometrial biopsy score may be a category IIA, with pathological findings of mild, focal, subacute inflammation with or without lymphangiectasia [ 57 ]. Bacteria and PMNs are usually absent. After repeated mating in a season, these mares accumulate intrauterine fluid and may have interstitial edema within the uterine wall after ovulation. At this time, the endometrial biopsy score may worsen to a category IIB, with the primary lesions of diffuse, moderate, subacute inflammation, lymphangiectasia, and moderate to severe edema [ 57 ].
Then, positive uterine culture and neutrophilic uterine cytology can be observed [ 17 ]. Myeloperoxidase is a pro-oxidant enzyme stored in and released by neutrophils during degranulation or after lysis [ 59 ]. In horses, myeloperoxidase has been demonstrated in different biological samples, such as plasma and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, reaching variable concentrations.
Its presence has been recently confirmed in the uterine lumen, both in physiological conditions, like during estrus, and it seems to be related to uterine inflammation [ 59 ]. Samples were collected by low volume flush and stored in tubes with EDTA, since it prevents coagulation and consequently degranulation of neutrophils, thus stabilizing myeloperoxidase concentration. It has been noted that its concentration is high in mares affected by endometritis, showing a positive correlation both with positive cytological results and with the presence of intrauterine fluid [ 59 ].
Further studies to establish the threshold between normal and pathologic uterine concentrations of myeloperoxidase are needed. Another intriguing biomarker is NO, a smooth muscle relaxant able to compromise the uterine contractility and, consequently, its clearance [ 60 ]. A higher amount of NO and a higher NOS expression in uterine biopsies were found in susceptible mares 13 hours after insemination, compared with resistant ones [ 26 ].
Although it is not clear whether the higher NO concentration in susceptible mares is the cause or the result of a delayed uterine clearance, the difference between the susceptible and the resistant mares suggests a possible role for it either directly or through a NO-associated pathway [ 26 ]. The purpose of the treatment protocol is always to prepare the endometrium for embryo descent, which happens about 6 days after-mating, but the choice of the exact management depends on the specific etiological diagnosis [ 56 ]. The main objective is to resolve endometrial inflammation by restricting the bacterial contamination and by improving uterine physical clearance.
Resolution of underlying problems is necessary to succeed in endometritis treatment. Any anatomical defects, which may contribute to development of infections and impairs the post-insemination fluid drainage, should be corrected with surgery, e.
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Traditional therapy to improve physical clearance of uterine fluid is uterine irrigation, associated to the administration of ecbolic, either oxytocin 10—25 UI i. In case of infectious endometritis, the key to resolve the pathology is the antimicrobial therapy, either with systemic or intrauterine administration. Mucolytic irrigations have been recommended before the antimicrobial infusion, in order to eliminate bacterial biofilm and to improve drugs absorption by the uterine mucosa [ 17 ].
New treatment strategies are being developed, thanks to the growth of knowledge about persistent uterine infection pathophysiology. For example, immunomodulatory therapy has been proven effective in modulating the impaired uterine inflammatory response in susceptible mares. Different biological products such asheterologous or autologous plasma, platelet-rich plasma infusions, autologous conditioned serum and mesenchymal stem cells have been tested [ 87 — 92 ].
Corticoids and Mycobacterium cell wall extract or Propionibacterium acnes have been confirmed to be useful to treat endometritis [ 93 ]. At the end of the treatment, its efficacy should be controlled. The uterine lavage is helpful to remove debris, microbes, neutrophils and other substances that interfere with the mucosal absorption of antimicrobial and with neutrophils action. This also improves the clearance by stimulating uterine contractility.
The lavage contrasts infectious agents by mechanical irritation of endometrium, which helps recruitment of neutrophils and opsonins [ 17 ]. The choice to treat or not a mare with uterine lavage relies on the presence of post-mating intrauterine fluid and on the degree of edema. An US examination is performed 4 to 8 hours post-mating: when no or little edema or slight accumulation of fluid is detected, the lavage is not performed.
Otherwise, when the intrauterine fluid is more than 2 cm in depth, the mare is treated with immediate uterine irrigation [ 17 ]. To avoid the interference with conception, the best timing for uterine flushing is 4 hours post-breeding [ 94 ]. Thus, a further US examination is advisable 24 hours post-breeding to evaluate if additional uterine irrigations are needed.
Whenever US results are impracticable, a preventive uterine lavage between 4 and 12 hours after breeding should be performed [ 47 ]. The procedure for a therapeutic uterine lavage is identical to that described for the low volume uterine flush, except for that a large-bore e. The warm uterine flushing should be combined with uterine massage per rectum to uniformly diffuse the fluid and to stimulate the myometrium contraction. Lavage is generally repeated until the effluent results are clear or not too turbid.
A low volume, 5—10 ml, of povidone-iodine solution can be added to 1 L of saline as preventive antimicrobial and antifungal treatment. This management is cost-effective and easy to be prepared, stored and delivered. It was suggested that these changes could reduce embryo survival [ 96 ]. Ecbolics are administered as described to eliminate completely the infused fluids [ 17 ].
Identifying and destroying bacterial infections might be the key to resolve some chronic reproductive problems.
On the other hand, the decision to use antibiotics should rely on clear diagnostic evidences, which is not always the case. Hence, the key factor in treating endometritis with antibiotics is to confirm the presence of a true bacterial infection [ 97 ]. In endometritis, the infection is frequently limited to the endometrium and intrauterine infusion of antimicrobials is the most common approach treatment. However, the analysis of uterine biopsies showed that Streptococcus zooepidemicus was present deep within the endometrial tissue in infertile mares [ 98 ].
In these cases, treatments limited to intra-uterine infusions may be unsuccessful, especially if the antibiotic did not achieve deep-tissue concentrations, adequate to kill the microorganism [ 97 ]. Infectious endometritis must be treated by intrauterine infusion, during estrus, with the appropriate antimicrobial administered daily for 3 to 7 days and after uterine irrigations, which eliminate organic material that may interfere with the antibiotic function.
Intrauterine infusion volumes of antibiotics from 30 to ml have been suggested to achieve distribution throughout the uterine lumen [ 99 ]. Rowlands, and published by Journal of Reproduction and Fertility J. This volume in the Equine Reproduction Series provides full coverage of research and clinical findings in the physiology and pathology of reproduction in equids.
Studies on the maturational changes in oocytes, spermatozoa and young embryos are a feature of this book, which also contains a description of the first successful in vitro fertilisation IVF culminating in a live foal.
- Pregnancy, Foaling, Lactation and Foal Care;
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The proceedings were edited by B. Weir, I. Rowlands, W. Allen and P. Rossdale, and published by Journal of Reproduction and Fertility J. This volume contains 85 full papers presented orally at Calgary and 40 expanded abstracts of the papers displayed in poster form at the meeting. As in previous volumes, there is full coverage of research and clinical findings in the physiology and pathology of reproduction in horses and other equids. A new section, dealing with research techniques and methodology is included in this volume for the first time and there are full subject and author indexes.
The proceedings were edited by I. As in previous volumes, there is full coverage of physiological, pathological, clinical and bacteriological material; the final category being particularly represented by a Colloquium on Corynebacterium infection. The Colloquium on the readiness for birth complemented the other papers in the section on the perinatal period and the suckling foal. Rowlands and W. Allen and published by Journal of Reproduction and Fertility J.
Eighty-three papers provide a complete resume of worldwide insight in basic and clinical research into all aspects of mare and stallion reproduction. These proceedings contain many original accounts of reproductive processes in the equine that are still quoted in the current literature. The aim of the symposium was to provide a forum for biologists and veterinarians of like interests to exchange and argue their views, to review the present state of knowledge of the subject, to produce guidelines for future research, and to foster international friendship and collaboration.
Proceedings were edited by I. Rossdale and published as a supplement of the Journal of Reproduction and Fertility J.