For example, the transport sector is likely to rely increasingly on electricity, whether in the form of fully electric or hybrid vehicles, either using battery power or synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Here, nuclear power can also contribute, via generation of either electricity or process heat for the production of hydrogen or other fuels. The contribution of nuclear power to the electricity production in the different countries in Europe differs widely with some countries having zero contribution e.
Italy, Lithuania and some with the major part comprising nuclear power e.
France, Hungary, Belgium, Slovakia, Sweden. The use of nuclear energy for commercial electricity production began in the mids. Total number of operating nuclear reactors worldwide. Many other new reactors are in the planning stage, including for example, 12 in the UK. The predominant technology is the Light Water Reactor LWR developed originally in the United States by Westinghouse and then exploited massively by France and others in the s as a response to the oil crisis. Some countries France, UK, Russia, Japan built demonstration scale fast neutron reactors in the s and 70s, but the only commercial reactor of this type currently operating is in Russia.
Nuclear reactor generations from the pioneering age to the next decade reproduced with permission from Ricotti Other initiatives supporting biomass, wind, solar, electricity grids and carbon sequestration are in parallel. The generation of nuclear energy from uranium produces not only electricity but also spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste HLW as a by-product.
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For this HLW, a technical and socially acceptable solution is necessary. The time scale needed for the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel to drop to the level of natural uranium is very long i. The preferred solution for disposing of spent fuel or the HLW resulting from classical reprocessing is deep geological storage.
Whilst there are no such geological repositories operating yet in the world, Sweden, Finland and France are on track to have such facilities ready by Kautsky et al. In this context it should also be mentioned that it is only for a minor fraction of the HLW that recycling and transmutation is required since adequate separation techniques of the fuel can be recycled and again fed through the LWR system. Despite the regional differences in the development plans, the main questions are of common interest to all countries, and require solutions in order to maintain nuclear power in the power mix of contributing to sustainable economic growth.
The questions include i maintaining safe operation of the nuclear plants, ii securing the fuel supplies, iii a strategy for the management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. The nuclear countries have signed the corresponding agreements and the majority of them have created the necessary legal and regulatory structure Nuclear Safety Authority. As regards radioactive wastes, particularly high-level wastes HLW and spent fuel SF most of the countries have long-term policies. The establishment of new nuclear units and the associated nuclear technology developments offer new perspectives, which may need reconsideration of fuel cycle policies and more active regional and global co-operation.
In the frame of the open fuel cycle, the spent fuel will be taken to final disposal without recycling. Deep geological repositories are the only available option for isolating the highly radioactive materials for a very long time from the biosphere. France and the Netherlands which will allow for permanent access and inspection. The main advantage of the open fuel cycle is its simplicity. The spent fuel assemblies are first stored in interim storage for several years or decades, then they will be placed in special containers and moved into deep underground storage facilities.
The report discusses the challenges associated with different strategies to manage spent nuclear fuel, in respect of both open cycles and steps towards closing the nuclear fuel cycle. It integrates the conclusions on the issues raised on sustainability, safety, non-proliferation and security, economics, public involvement and on the decision-making process. Recently Vandenbosch et al.
One complication of the nuclear waste storage problem is that the minor actinides represent a high activity see Fig. This might be a difficult challenge if the storage is to be operated economically together with the fuel fabrication. The conventional closed fuel cycle strategy uses the reprocessing of the spent fuel following interim storage. The main components which can be further utilised U and Pu are recycled to fuel manufacturing MOX Mixed Oxide fuel fabrication , whilst the smaller volume of residual waste in appropriately conditioned form—e.
The advanced closed fuel cycle strategy is similar to the conventional one, but within this strategy the minor actinides are also removed during reprocessing. The separated isotopes are transmuted in combination with power generation and only the net reprocessing wastes and those conditioned wastes generated during transmutation will be, following appropriate encapsulation, disposed of in deep geological repositories.
The main factor that determines the overall storage capacity of a long-term repository is the heat content of nuclear waste, not its volume. During the anticipated repository time, the specific heat generated during the decay of the stored HLW must always stay below a dedicated value prescribed by the storage concept and the geological host information.
The waste that results from reprocessing spent fuel from thermal reactors has a lower heat content after a period of cooling than does the spent fuel itself. Thus, it can be stored more densely. A modern light water reactor of 1 GWe capacity will typically discharge about 20—25 tonnes of irradiated fuel per year of operation. About 0. These latter elements accumulate in nuclear fuel because of neutron capture, and they contribute significantly to decay heat loading and neutron output, as well as to the overall radiotoxic hazard of spent fuel.
To address the issue of sustainability of nuclear energy, in particular the use of natural resources, fast neutron reactors FNRs must be developed, since they can typically multiply by over a factor 50 the energy production from a given amount of uranium fuel compared to current reactors. Through hardening the spectrum a fast reactor can be designed to burn minor actinides giving a FCR larger than unity which allows breeding of fissile materials.
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Important research and development is currently being coordinated at the international level through initiatives such as GIF. In , six reactor technologies were selected which GIF believe represent the future of nuclear energy. These were selected from the many various approaches being studied on the basis of being clean, safe and cost-effective means of meeting increased energy demands on a sustainable basis. Furthermore, they are considered being resistant to diversion of materials for weapons proliferation and secure from terrorist attacks. The continued research and development will focus on the chosen six reactor approaches.
Most of the six systems employ a closed fuel cycle to maximise the resource base and minimise high-level wastes to be sent to a repository. Only one is cooled by light water, two are helium-cooled and the others have lead—bismuth, sodium or fluoride salt coolant. The latter three operate at low pressure, with significant safety advantage. The last has the uranium fuel dissolved in the circulating coolant. This is designed for distributed generation or desalination. At least four of the systems have significant operating experience already in most respects of their design, which provides a good basis for further research and development and is likely to mean that they can be in commercial operation well before However, when addressing non-proliferation concerns it is significant that fast neutron reactors are not conventional fast breeders, i.
Instead, plutonium production happens to take place in the core, where burn-up is high and the proportion of plutonium isotopes other than Pu remains high. In addition, new reprocessing technologies will enable the fuel to be recycled without separating the plutonium. It suggested that the Generation IV technologies most likely to be deployed first are the SFR, the lead-cooled fast reactor LFR and the very high temperature reactor technologies.
- Mixed oxide fuel (Mox) exploitation and destruction in power ..|INIS;
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The molten salt reactor and the GFR were shown as furthest from demonstration phase. Europe, through sustainable nuclear energy technology platform SNETP and ESNII, has defined its own strategy and priorities for FNRs with the goal to demonstrate Generation IV reactor technologies that can close the nuclear fuel cycle, provide long-term waste management solutions and expand the applications of nuclear fission beyond electricity production to hydrogen production, industrial heat and desalination; The SFR as a proven concept, as well as the LFR as a short-medium term alternative and the GFR as a longer-term alternative technology.
Astrid Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration is based on about 45 reactor-years of operational experience in France and will be rated to MWe. It is expected to be built at Marcoule from , with the unit being connected to the grid in Allegro GFR is to be built in eastern Europe, and is more innovative. Allegro is expected to begin construction in operate from The industrial demonstrator would follow it. Later, it could become a European fast neutron technology pilot plant for lead and a multi-purpose research reactor. A reduced-power model of Myrrha called Guinevere started up at Mol in March Construction on Alfred could begin in and the unit could start operating in Research and development topics to meet the top-level criteria established within the GIF forum in the context of simultaneously matching economics as well as stricter safety criteria set-up by the WENRA FNR demand substantial improvements with respect to the following issues:.
Advanced separation both via aqueous processes supplementing the PUREX process as well as pyroprocessing, which is mandatory for the reprocessing of the high MA-containing fuels,. In addition, supporting research infrastructures, irradiation facilities, experimental loops and fuel fabrication facilities, will need to be constructed.
Regarding transmutation, the accelerator-driven transmutation systems ADS technology must be compared to FNR technology from the point of view of feasibility, transmutation efficiency and cost efficiency. From the economical point of view, the ADS industrial solution should be assessed in terms of its contribution to closing the fuel cycle. Transmutation of the minor actinides is achieved through fission reactions and therefore fast neutrons are preferred in dedicated burners.
At the European level, four building blocks strategy for Partitioning and Transmutation have been identified. These blocks are:.
Uranium Enrichment and Fuel Fabrication - Current Issues (France)
Demonstration of the capability to fabricate at semi-industrial level dedicated transmuter fuel heavily loaded in minor actinides;. Fabrication of new transmuter fuel together with demonstration of advanced reprocessing of transmuter fuel. MYRRHA will support this Roadmap by playing the role of an ADS prototype at reasonable power level and as a flexible irradiation facility providing fast neutrons for the qualification of materials and fuel for an industrial transmuter.
MYRRHA will be not only capable of irradiating samples of such inert matrix fuels but also of housing fuel pins or even a limited number of fuel assemblies heavily loaded with MAs for irradiation and qualification purposes. Nuclear fusion research, on the basis of magnetic confinement, considered in this report, has been actively pursued in Europe from the mids. Fusion research has the goal to achieve a clean and sustainable energy source for many generations to come. In parallel with basic high-temperature plasma research, the fusion technology programme is pursued as well as the economy of a future fusion reactor Ward et al.
The organisation of the research has resulted in a well-focused common fusion research programme. The members of the EUROfusion 7 consortium are 29 national fusion laboratories. The Roadmap outlines the most efficient way to realise fusion electricity. The most successful confinement concepts are toroidal ones like tokamaks and helical systems like stellarators Wagner , To avoid drift losses, two magnetic field components are necessary for confinement and stability—the toroidal and the poloidal field component. Due to their superposition, the magnetic field winds helically around a system of nested toroids.
Search took: 0. Mixed oxide fuel Mox exploitation and destruction in power reactors. Merz, E. Citation Export Print Permalink Translate. Abstract Abstract. The papers can be grouped into four topic groups: Nuclear material management 4 ; Safeguards and security 3 ; MOX fuel use in various reactors 10 ; MOX fuel fabrication and irradiation experience 8.
The success of this workshop programme is evident from the wealth of technical paper contributions offered by key speakers from 9 countries. The proceedings in hand are the legacy left by the authors. It is the editors hope that the content of the papers should find a use as a technical reference document, which is the best way possible to reward the authors for their efforts. The proceedings are organized along the themes of the workshop.
The outcome of the workshop is summarized in an extra chapter chapter 5. Series 1. Disarmament Technologies; v.