This action nearly kills Zarathustra, for example, and most human beings cannot avoid other-worldliness because they really are sick, not because of any choice they made.
Nietzsche’s Philosophical Context: An Intellectual Biography
The Nazis tried to incorporate the concept into their ideology. She reworked Nietzsche's unpublished writings to fit her own German nationalist ideology while often contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism. Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with fascism and Nazism ;  20th century scholars contested this interpretation of his work, and corrected editions of his writings were soon made available. Although Nietzsche has famously been misrepresented as a predecessor to Nazism, he criticized anti-Semitism, pan-Germanism and, to a lesser extent, nationalism.
Friedrich Nietzsche held a pessimistic view on modern society and culture.
His views stand against the concept of popular culture. He believed the press and mass culture led to conformity and brought about mediocrity. Nietzsche saw a lack of intellectual progress, leading to the decline of the human species. According to Nietzsche, individuals needed to overcome this form of mass culture. He believed some people were able to become superior individuals through the use of will power. By rising above mass culture, society would produce higher, brighter and healthier human beings. A trained philologist, Nietzsche had a thorough knowledge of Greek philosophy.
He read Kant , Plato , Mill , Schopenhauer and Spir ,  who became his main opponents in his philosophy, and later Baruch Spinoza , whom he saw as his "precursor" in many respects  but as a personification of the "ascetic ideal" in others. However, Nietzsche referred to Kant as a "moral fanatic", Plato as "boring", Mill as a "blockhead", and of Spinoza he said: "How much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray?
Nietzsche's philosophy, while innovative and revolutionary, was indebted to many predecessors.
Nietzsche, Friedrich | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
While at Basel, Nietzsche offered lecture courses on pre-Platonic philosophers for several years, and the text of this lecture series has been characterized as a "lost link" in the development of his thought. His symbolism of the world as "child play" marked by amoral spontaneity and lack of definite rules was appreciated by Nietzsche.
In his Egotism in German Philosophy , Santayana claimed that Nietzsche's whole philosophy was a reaction to Schopenhauer. Santayana wrote that Nietzsche's work was "an emendation of that of Schopenhauer. The will to live would become the will to dominate; pessimism founded on reflection would become optimism founded on courage; the suspense of the will in contemplation would yield to a more biological account of intelligence and taste; finally in the place of pity and asceticism Schopenhauer's two principles of morals Nietzsche would set up the duty of asserting the will at all costs and being cruelly but beautifully strong.
These points of difference from Schopenhauer cover the whole philosophy of Nietzsche. Nietzsche's works did not reach a wide readership during his active writing career. However, in the influential Danish critic Georg Brandes aroused considerable excitement about Nietzsche through a series of lectures he gave at the University of Copenhagen.
In the years after Nietzsche's death in , his works became better known, and readers have responded to them in complex and sometimes controversial ways. He had some following among left-wing Germans in the s; in — German conservatives wanted to ban his work as subversive. During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements and appear to have had influence within them, particularly in France and the United States.
Mencken produced the first book on Nietzsche in English in , The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche , and in a book of translated paragraphs from Nietzsche, increasing knowledge of his philosophy in the United States. Writer on music Donald Mitchell notes that Gustav Mahler was "attracted to the poetic fire of Zarathustra, but repelled by the intellectual core of its writings. Frederick Delius produced a piece of choral music, A Mass of Life , based on a text of Thus Spoke Zarathustra , while Richard Strauss who also based his Also sprach Zarathustra on the same book , was only interested in finishing "another chapter of symphonic autobiography".
Nietzsche was an early influence on the poetry of Rainer Maria Rilke. Knut Hamsun counted Nietzsche, along with Strindberg and Dostoyevsky, as one of his primary influences. Painter Giovanni Segantini was fascinated by Thus Spoke Zarathustra , and he drew an illustration for the first Italian translation of the book. By World War I , Nietzsche had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for both right-wing German militarism and leftist politics.
Gordon  and Martin Buber , who went so far as to extoll Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life". He also shared Nietzsche's view of tragedy. Adorno  can be seen in the popular Dialectic of Enlightenment. Adorno summed up Nietzsche's philosophy as expressing the "humane in a world in which humanity has become a sham. Nietzsche's growing prominence suffered a severe setback when his works became closely associated with Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany.
Many political leaders of the twentieth century were at least superficially familiar with Nietzsche's ideas, although it is not always possible to determine whether they actually read his work. It is debated among scholars whether Hitler read Nietzsche, although if he did his reading of him may not have been extensive. Mussolini ,   Charles de Gaulle  and Huey P.
Newton  read Nietzsche. Richard Nixon read Nietzsche with "curious interest," and his book Beyond Peace might have taken its title from Nietzsche's book Beyond Good and Evil which Nixon read beforehand. A decade after World War II, there was a revival of Nietzsche's philosophical writings thanks to exhaustive translations and analyses by Walter Kaufmann and R. Others, well known philosophers in their own right, wrote commentaries on Nietzsche's philosophy, including Martin Heidegger , who produced a four-volume study, and Lev Shestov , who wrote a book called Dostoyevski, Tolstoy and Nietzsche where he portrays Nietzsche and Dostoyevski as the "thinkers of tragedy".
Camus described Nietzsche as "the only artist to have derived the extreme consequences of an aesthetics of the absurd ". Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses. Home FAQ Contact. Friedrich Nietzsche Wikipedia open wikipedia design. For other uses, see Nietzsche disambiguation. German philosopher. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche. University of Bonn Leipzig University. Main article: Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.
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Main articles: God is dead and Nihilism. Main article: Will to power. Main article: Eternal return. Main article: Library of Friedrich Nietzsche. Main article: Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche. Main article: Friedrich Nietzsche bibliography. See also: List of works about Friedrich Nietzsche. Philosophy portal Atheism portal Germany portal Biography portal. Zalta, Edward N. Oxford University Press. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 9 April University of Illinois Press. University of Illinois Press, Journal of Nietzsche Studies Vol. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
A History of Western Philosophy. New York: Simon and Schuster. Summer "Friedrich Nietzsche". Zalta ed. Retrieved 6 October Lanier 17 March Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Nietzsche's philosophical context: an intellectual biography , p. Journal of Contemporary Religion , vol 27, no. Nietzsche , Twilight of the Idols. Hollingdale online version. A strict example of a cause-and-effect mismatch, with regard to the God-creator as the cause and our concepts as the effects, is perhaps not fully stressed in this fragment, but the more explicit it is stressed in the same book, chapter ""Reason" in philosophy", 4, as well as in The Antichrist 57, where real and imaginary origins are contrasted, and 62, where he calls Christianity 'a fatality'—'fatal' also meaning 'unavoidable' and in The Genealogy of Morals , books 1—3, among others.
The topic of " false origins" of ideas is also suggested in The Four Great Errors , 3, and precisely about morality in e. The Will to Power , tr. Kaufmann, online text here. Gemes, J. Press, , pp. New Haven: Yale University Press.
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Friedrich Nietzsche: Herald of a New Era. Hazar Press. Wistrich eds. Princeton, N. Friedrich Nietzsche Winter ed. The Good European: Nietzsche's work sites in word and image. University of Chicago Press, Nietzsche: A Critical Life , p. Oxford University Press, Yale University Press, Jensen, Helmut Heit eds.
Archived from the original on 24 November History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences. Oxford University Press New York , Letter to Karl Von Gersdorff , June Note that some authors among them Deussen and Montinari mistakenly claim that Nietzsche became a Swiss citizen. Journal of Medical Biography. Nietzsche and the Transcendental Tradition. Shelley Frisch.
Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography , p. Plett - Schmidseder. Walter de Gruyter. Letter to Peter Gast. August Retrieved 27 November March The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche. Cambridge University Press. The Nietzsche Channel. Retrieved 24 August Wilhelm, Bismarck und alle Antisemiten abgeschafft. December , pp. Hospital Medicine. The Legend of Nietzsche's Syphilis. Westport: Greenwood Press. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.
Acta Neurologica Belgica. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. Mercury Poisoning: The Undiagnosed Epidemic. Volz , p. The Concise encyclopedia of western philosophy 3rd ed. London: Routledge. The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. Wilder Publications. Friedrich Nietzsche. Transaction Publishers. Archived from the original on 24 June Retrieved 16 August Nietzsche's ring Herbarz Polski Kaspra Niesieckiego S. Bobrowicza [ Polish armorial of Kasper Niesiecki S. Heraldic Family Bobrowicz, Lipsk herb Radwan t.
Archived from the original on 17 August Retrieved 17 August In , the Polish writer Bernhard Scharlitt in the spirit of Polish patriotism wrote an article about the Nietzsche family. In Herbarz Polski, a genealogy of Polish nobility, he had come across a note about a family named 'Nicki', who could be traced back to Radwan.
A member of this family named Gotard Nietzsche had left Poland for Prussia, and his descendants had eventually settled in Saxony around the year University Press , p. Charles Q. Nietzsche's Women: Beyond the Whip.
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Zarathustra's secret: the interior life of Friedrich Nietzsche. Nietzsche and Jewish Culture. Paradoxes and Lessons of a Hard Case". The Journal of Modern History. Young Nietzsche: Becoming a Genius. New York: The Free Press. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Philosophers Behaving Badly. London: Peter Owen. Grenke The Review of Politics. The Interior Life of Friedrich Nietzsche". Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. Nietzsche on Ethics and Politics.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wayne State University Press. Retrieved 3 January Friedrich Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography. Ideas About Art. Archived from the original on 14 August Patterns of Culture. Foucault's Nietzschean Genealogy. Nietzsche: Naturalism and Interpretation. From Hegel to Existentialism. Alasdair MacIntyre.
Tradition in the ethics of Alasdair MacIntyre. From Shakespeare to existentialism. On the Genealogy of Morals. First essay, section Ecce Homo. Chapter on The Case of Wagner, section 2. Beyond Good and Evil. Section Walter Kaufmann, in The Portable Nietzsche , , pp. What Nietzsche Means. See F. The Journal of Nietzsche Studies. Hegel, Nietzsche, and Philosophy: Thinking Freedom. David Farrell Krell. New York: Harper and Row, New York: Vintage Books. Purdue University Press. Retrieved 18 April The Portable Nietzsche. Walter Kaufmann.
New York: Penguin. Nietzsche: Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Adrian Del Caro and Robert Pippin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nietzsche's Teaching. The Mask of Enlightenment. Archived from the original on 7 June International Studies in Philosophy.
Philological Quarterly. Grzelczyk quotes B. Wahrig-Schmidt, "Irgendwie, jedenfalls physiologisch. Paris The Gay Science , Walter Kaufmann transl, p. Deleuze, Nietzsche and Philosophy transl. Hugh Tomlinson , , pp. When he revisits the Swiss town of Sils-Maria 18 years after his initial trip, he both laments and celebrates his maturation. How to resist? By the time he returns to America, he has modified his conception of how, exactly, we should go about steeling ourselves in the face of the decadent imperatives of a consumerist, conformist world.
What Kaag overlooked in his youth is that Nietzsche does not prescribe difficulty for its own sake. Though the metaphorical language Nietzsche employed throughout his career is wildly inconsistent, he was ultimately an advocate of health—but health, he emphasized, is not synonymous with enjoyment.
On the contrary, health requires the trials that beget a strong constitution and Nietzsche did not have SoulCycle in mind. In The Will to Power , he wrote,. To those human beings who are of any concern to me I wish suffering, desolation, sickness, ill-treatment, indignities—I wish that they should not remain unfamiliar with profound self-contempt, the torture of self-mistrust, the wretchedness of the vanquished: I have no pity for them, because I wish them the only thing that can prove today whether one is worth anything or not—that one endures.
Kaag needed two trips to the Alps to grasp that Nietzsche counsels us to celebrate our suffering because we can avoid it only if we avoid engagement—only if we insulate ourselves from the hardship that is part and parcel of even the most placid human existence. Conferences were studiously organized. Bathrooms were meticulously cleaned. This is not an escape or respite from life but rather its realization.
It once took him all the way to the edge of an Alpine precipice, to the brink of starvation. Nietzsche's Sensualism. Mattia Riccardi - - European Journal of Philosophy 21 2 Nietzsche, Spinoza, and the Moral Affects. David Wollenberg - - Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 4 De Gruyter.
Oxford University Press. Bryan Finken - - Philosophy in Review 29 1 Robin Small - - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 35 1 Anthony K. Jensen - - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 17 1 — Nietzsche and Re: A Star Friendship. Robin Small - - Clarendon Press. Nietzsche and Ree: A Star Friendship. Robin Small - - Oxford University Press. Daniel Blue - - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 41 1 Descartes: An Intellectual Biography.
Stephen Gaukroger - - Clarendon Press. Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography Review. Steven V.